Pragmatique, rationnel, indépendant

Les syndicats et le chômage

Les syndicats ("unions") et les politiques de gauche contribuent-ils au chômage et à une reprise fragile ? C'est l'opinion de Gary Becker, prix Nobel d'économie, en ce qui concerne les Etats-Unis :

"The real threat to a robust recovery on the labor side has come from employer and entrepreneurial fears that once the economic environment improves, a Democratic Congress and administration will pass pro-union and other pro-worker legislation that will raise the cost of doing business and cut profits. In this way the obvious pro-union-pro-worker bias of the present [Obama] government has contributed to a slower recovery, especially in labor markets. This helps explain the depressingly slow decline in unemployment rates and in the number of workers who have given up looking for jobs." Source : http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2010/08/unions-and-the-obama-administrationbecker.html

Mentionnons également l'analyse de Larry Summers, qu'on ne peut accuser d'être "de droite" puisqu'il s'agit de l'économiste en chef de l'administration Obama :

"Another cause of long-term unemployment is unionization. High union wages that exceed the competitive market rate are likely to cause job losses in the unionized sector of the economy. Also, those who lose high-wage union jobs are often reluctant to accept alternative low-wage employment. Between 1970 and 1985, for example, a state with a 20 percent unionization rate, approximately the average for the fifty states and the District of Columbia, experienced an unemployment rate that was 1.2 percentage points higher than that of a hypothetical state that had no unions." Source : http://gregmankiw.blogspot.com/2009/01/summers-vs-obama.html 

Enfin, une étude empirique démontre que la présence de lois favorables aux syndicats a un impact très négatif sur l'emploi (au contraire, les "right-to-work laws" interdisent de conditionner l'obtention d'un emploi à l'appartenance à un syndicat) : "In research published in 2000, economist Thomas Holmes of the University of Minnesota compared counties close to the border between states with and without right-to-work laws (thereby holding constant an array of factors related to geography and climate). He found that the cumulative growth of employment in manufacturing (the traditional area of union strength prior to the rise of public-employee unions) in the right-to-work states was 26 percentage points greater than that in the non-right-to-work states."  Sources : http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704150604576166011983939364.html et http://www.jstor.org/stable/2990724