Un article récent de The Economist réévalue l'opportunité de politiques industrielles. La conclusion : ça ne fonctionne pas, notamment parce que les politiciens sont eux aussi humains, trop humains. Morceaux choisis :
"The idea of government intervention to influence the composition of a country’s output has long been derided by economists for breeding inefficiency, reducing competition, encouraging lobbying and saddling countries with factories producing output nobody wants."
"Industrial policy can work if it is designed properly. But that is a big if. (…) Earlier efforts have tended to degenerate into rent-seeking, lobbying and cosy deals between incumbent firms and bureaucrats, stifling innovation and the process of creative destruction. (…) In effect, Mr Rodrik and others are arguing that industrial policy requires disinterested, benevolent policymakers who can do it well. Unfortunately, (…) policy is made by real people with political and personal motivations."
The Economist, Oct 1 2011, “Tinker Tailor”.